Believing Science, Believing Theology
Have you ever wondered why humans view the world, the way they do? If you have noticed, they have quite a diverse opinion on just about everything. In many cases even the thing they agree on, if you were to ask them to think a little deeper, they will begin to disagree. It seems that thinking in itself does not bring about a unity of opinion.
If we honestly trained our minds to separate a fact from our opinion, which is our interpretation of the facts, we could at least agree on the facts. You could say that facts are like stones that are lying on the ground. They have no inherent means other than they are stones lying on the ground. Similarly, the ground that they are lying on also is a fact. However, when a human comes along and picks up the stones and begins to ask himself questions about them, such as how, when and why, i.e. to give an explanation of the facts, we then have moved away from the facts and have moved into an interpretation of the facts. The problem with many people is that they cannot discern the difference between what is their opinion or their interpretation of the facts, and what the facts themselves truly are.
The discipline of science is an effort to determine what interpretation of the facts best represents the facts. Of course, this is conditional on the scientific community agreeing on what the facts are, but sometimes theoretical science cannot accomplish this merely because the facts are unobservable. Sometimes scientists must first create an instrument to prove the existence of the facts and then they must have a system to guard their interpretation of the facts. The process that they use to do this is called the scientific method
The same principle applies to theology. Theology is or should be about the business of sorting out what interpretation of God best reflects the facts. Like science, this is contingent on the community recognizing certain facts and having the tools to find and interpret those facts. In the case of Christian theology, the fact would have to be the words of the Apostle and what could be inferred about God from nature and person of Jesus Christ. One problem we have with theology is that things inferred are not necessarily facts, but more resemble an interpretation of the facts. However, this problem is often found in science as well.
The biggest difference between science and theology is the community explanation of what are the facts. In science, the fact should be physical and be observable. However, this is not true in many of the so-called sciences. For example, in much of evolution science or in psychiatry the scientific method is not possible, which in some people’s minds raises the question of whether or not these disciplines are truly a science? I would say in the most rigid way of thinking that they are not. Some, to note the differences between the sciences, use the term soft and hard. Hard sciences are those sciences that have physical facts to observe like physics or biology. The soft sciences are like psychology and sociology.
In Christian theology, the facts are also physical. Christians believe that at one time God revealed himself in Christ. That Christ was physically present and worked miracles to prove his identity. Like science, there was also a community of men that witnessed His existence and his miracles. They claimed that they saw, heard and handled this fact from God (1 John 1:1-4). Now if these witnessed and experienced events were going to be falsified, they would have by the very nature of the evidence, had to have been falsified in the current time frame of their happening. They were not falsified, although there were attempts to do so.
In science as in religion, the facts are often one step, or many steps removed from the facts and cannot or have not been observed or experienced by most men. In the community of faith, members believe that some men have observed the facts and therefore have a better knowledge of the facts than others. This is not only true in the faith community but also in the scientific community. Members of the scientific community, like the faith community, believe and accept by faith what the scientific community says about the facts, even though they have not seen the facts personally. Not only do they accept the existence of unobserved facts, but they also accept the scientific community interpretation of these unobserved facts, for they have neither the facts nor the expertise to question them.
However, this process of acquiring knowledge for the faith community is not as different from the scientific community as some scientists would have us to believe. The other day I was listening to an audiobook about Einstein’s theory of relativity and in the opening statement the authority, who is a Physicist, said that he believes that there were only a few men in the world that truly understood what Einstein was saying. I have read similar admissions by other men in other disciplines. I remember one, which pointed out that there were very few men that headed up any discipline that actually looked at the facts. The rest of the members of the discipline gained their knowledge through the community, texts, and schools. The majority of men believed not because of the evidence, but because they believed what the community taught them. In the majority of these cases, the evidence is never checked by the students of the discipline. In those circumstances, the majority of people’s beliefs are very much like those of religion, i.e. dogma. When you look at it this way, there are very few men in any discipline that really handle the facts and observed them firsthand. In essence, you could say that there are very few men that actually do science and the same thing holds true of those that do theology. In Christian theology, we could say only the Apostles of Jesus actually did theology.
In science, as in theology, there are certain assumptions that must be made to carry out science. Scientists must believe in the uniformity of nature and the law of cause and effect, otherwise, they could not do science. They must believe in a pattern that can be found in nature, which can be analyzed and measured. As Einstein said, “God does not play dice with the universe”. Of course, it must be noted that some younger scientists believe He does. Though that view is not the one that is accepted or used by the scientific community. Mainly because it would destroy the community.
In Christian theology, the assumptions are that there is a God and that God has revealed himself in Jesus Christ. These assumptions are accepted as facts by the Christian community. If you do not accept them, you cannot logically do Christian theology. Of course, you could write about Christian theology as I write about science and I am not a scientist. This may or may not be a disadvantage. It is often hard for a fish in a bowl to see itself as others do. Sometimes being in a discipline is very much like being like a fish in a bowl. Those outside the bowl may have a clearer view of the fish and the bowl, than the fish that is inside the bowl.
I think this will help to understand why we often think, the way we think. Our thinking seems to be largely dependent on our habits of thought; and our habits of thought depend to on a large degree, on the community that we belong to, or lack of one. Now by the community, I mean formal and informal. Formal communities are groups like a family, religious organizations, professional groups or political parties. The informal communities are your friends, the books you read, and the places or the field that you work in. In the broader sense the formal community will often influence the informal ones reading habits and other social habits of the individual. In most cases, the community does a large amount of thinking for the individual, which is a hard pill to swallow for those that like to think of themselves as free thinkers. The greatest amount of our freedom of thought comes from our freedom to choose a community that will greatly influence our thinking.
The implications of this are many. One of the obvious ones is that it is the community that does the educating of the individual that comes into it. The community imparts its view of the world, which all in the group will believe is the correct view. Another obvious thing is that the community not only inputs its knowledge into the individual, but it also inputs its biases and its attitude, i.e. its spirit. It is also obvious that it is very hard to change or correct a belief in a community. It often takes the death of an entire generation, which allows a free flow of ideas. So, what we gather from this the community can enlighten, and can also blind the individual. This is true of the scientific community or a community of faith, as noted in Thomas Kuhn’s book, “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions”.
The Christian faith, unlike any other faith, is much like science because it is based on a physical happening. That is the coming of the Logos (Christ) into flesh, his life, death, and his resurrection. All of these things were observed by men. These men, in turn, wrote down their experience and observation of the Logos in the book we call the New Testament. “That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked at and our hands have touched this we proclaim concerning the Word of life. The life appeared; we have seen it and testify to it, and we proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and has appeared to us. We proclaim to you what we have seen and heard, so that you also may have fellowship with us. And our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son, Jesus Christ” (1 John 1:1-3).
Note in this scripture that the apostles’ beliefs were grounded in facts. They claimed to hear, touch and see the man that they preached about. Their beliefs were not based on second-hand information learned from a book, but rather they were based on first-hand experiences. All of the Apostles of Jesus, but one, were killed for their faith and yet not one of them recanted their belief in Jesus. This seems to be better evidence than most scientific theories come up with and I have not heard of too many scientists dying for their theories. Yet today you have people that believe that the Christian community has no right to preach the message of Christ because they did not witness it. However, if that is the case how does a high school science teacher have a right to teach science which he has not personally observed? What right would anyone have to teach that humans came from a common ancestor or that a lizard evolved into a bird? Has anyone ever observed it actually happening? No, they have not, and they will never observe these things.
The Apostles of Jesus observed Jesus and the miracle of his resurrection. They also created a community of men that they left their knowledge with. This community was then told by them to take that knowledge to the world. Some have tried to explain this away by saying that Jesus never lived. However, if that is the case how can you explain the existence of a community of thousands built around his death and resurrection, shortly after his death?
Some may respond by saying that religion believes in miracles and science believes in facts. Before we take a close look at this statement, let us define our terms. A fact is something that e exists in itself. It stands by itself and needs no explanation or interpretation. Let us use our original example of the stones, or rocks on the ground. Let’s say that I was walking alone and saw some rocks laying on the ground. The rocks on the ground are a fact and in that statement, the ground would also be a fact. If you asked me how the rocks got there and I said I saw a truck dump them there, the placement of the rocks would be a fact for me, but not for you. You see a fact must be a thing that is able to be observed. Therefore, the placing of the rocks would be a fact for me because I personally witnessed it. The placing of the rocks would be a theory for you based on my testimony. Now the strength of the theory would depend on the credibility of the witness. Now, a theory can never become a fact to you unless you had a time machine to go back in time to the point where the rocks were dumped on the ground. The best you could do is try to find more witnesses that might confirm the witness’s testimony. The more witnesses the greater the probability that the witness is telling the truth and that the thing really happened or existed. You may increase the probability of how the rocks got on the ground, but you can never make a theory, a fact. Even if you were to take a truck and dump thousands of rocks upon the ground, all you could do is increase the probability of your theory. So, when you hear someone say that the theory of evolution has become a fact, you know that you are talking to someone that has some fuzzy thinking going on in their head. You might ask them if they were there when it happened.
I think now we may be ready to talk about science, religion, and miracles. We all know that religion believes in miracles, but do the facts bear out that science does not believe in them? Before going there we need to ask, what is a miracle? To me, a miracle is something that is super-natural i.e. beyond a natural explanation. If this is true, science should not hold to anything that cannot be explained by natural causes, within the framework of uniformity of nature. Yet, when we open a freshman science book, we are immediately confronted with the big bang theory of how the universe, time, space and matter, came out of nothing. We are even told when it happened, some 17 billion years ago. So, here we have a scientific theory that sounds very much like the first verse of the book of Genesis, “In the beginning, God created the heavens and earth”. Now, here’s the kicker, science says their theory is science and Genesis is religion. One view is scientific and the other is a belief in a miracle. The miracle of ex nihilo-the creation of something out of nothing. But how can one viewpoint be a miracle and the same viewpoint science? Someone might argue that it has been observed that the universe is expanding, which proves the big bang theory and that the universe had a beginning. But this would raise the question, “If the universe, space and time are expanding what did they initially expand out from if neither space and time existed? Does the evidence for the big bang prove the miracle of creation? Does it prove the existence of God? I do not believe so. However, it does leave the door open for something to exist outside of time and space, and that something could be God. It would also leave the door open for that God to come into space and time, and even to alter it. Otherwise, you have to believe that something came from nothing.
Is not something coming from nothing a miracle? I would say it is one of the greatest miracles ever recorded. If you can believe in something coming from nothing, then believing in the miracle of Jesus turning water into wine is nothing, for we see nature turning water into wine every day, Jesus just sped up the process. However, something out of nothing? That’s a big one.
 Some may say that Theology has no facts. But they have the facts of existence and consciousness.
 To some degree all of our assumptions are based on the primal assumption that we exist. Both the scientist and the theologian assume that they exist and begin with that as a fact.
God is Self-Evident
People that I have talked to or those that have read my blog, know that I believe that faith in the existence of supreme intelligence or consciousness is a self-evident truth. A self-evident truth is a truth that a majority of men recognize through natural instincts. That is, by men who have not had their reasoning corrupted by false beliefs and ideologies.
Some might raise the objection, ‘if the existence of God is self-evident, why are there so many that do not see it?’ Jesus said, “some people have eyes but do not see”. Sometimes overexposure deadens our sensitivity to a thing. We are often actually insensitive to our senses until they are impaired in some way. We seldom think about seeing out of our eyes until something threatens our sight. When we look out a window, we will not often see the glass unless we focus on it. The reason being, we have given our full attention to the things we are watching outside the window. However, if the window is dirty or has a crack in it, we see it immediately. The problem with modern man is that he is too focused on things to see God. This lack of sight is encouraged by our capitalistic and materialist culture that focuses people more on the physical than the existential and metaphysical realities.
The source of much unbelief could be contributed to the culture and environment that one grows up in. Some men grow up in families and cultures that are anti-metaphysical and are dominated by the materialistic mindset. If one grows up in such a culture, they absorbed a state of rebellion against God as normal or they are simply indifferent towards spirituality, without even knowing or understanding why they do not believe in God. They literally have had their minds washed of the idea of God; literally, they have been brainwashed and immersed in doubt to the point that it seems normal for them.
They are ignorant of God because they have neglected the knowledge of God, (secular culture) and have failed to follow the natural revelation of God in nature that leads people to faith in God. They trust in and exalt reason about what is reasonable. Reason is a wonderful thing, but it has its limits and it has the propensity to become the handmaid of our passions and our will and for some men, reason has become a sick lady infected with finiteness and sin which has led to total madness.
It was for this reason that the scientific method was created to help keep science honest. However, we are beginning to see that the problem is too hard to deal with through laws and methods because mankind uses reason to get around the law. Mankind needs grace to deal with sin and to keep reason honest.
When I give a reason for something, I must subsequently give a reason for the reason and then a reason for that reason. This regression would be infinite until I came to the end of reason itself. We have one or two choices; to follow the regression of reason to the end of reason or follow it to a first cause. If you are an atheist and deny that the first cause is ‘Intelligent’, your problem becomes insurmountable. You will inevitably end up denying reason or make it the first cause and in that, you have made reason god and might I add, a very small god. Moreover, reason will find its end when it comes up against itself, for how can reason explain itself without arguing in circles or chasing its own tail. “I believe in reason because that is what reason says to believe.” or “I believe in reason because my philosophy professor said I should believe in it and he learned it from Plato, who learned it from reason”.
Am I saying that I do not believe in reason? No, I am simply saying that reason has its limits and be careful not to ask too much of her. She is not infallible and without a proper foundation to reason from, she is like a man trying to ride a wild horse, she can kill you. Reason is a gift from God and was given as a tool to help us find our way on our journey. If we corrupt her, we do so at our own peril. If we make her into God, we bring the wrath of God upon ourselves. “You shall not have any other gods before you.” We make reason into god when we turn reason into rationalism. The difference between reason and rationalism is that reason knows her limits, rationalism does not and in this, rationalism is unreasonable and even stupid.
More Nonsense of The New Atheists
I hope the reader will bear with me as I share with you some nonsense about something that I’ve inherited from the new atheist. It is nonsense, which means that my response is also probably nonsense as well. At least what I have to say will give you something to think about, but I’m not completely certain because it is a non-belief and I’m unsure as to whether you can actually think about it.
The new atheist claims that they have no burden of proof because atheism is not a belief but rather a non-belief[i]. Right. Atheists, along with everyone else, can or cannot prove or disprove a non-belief. Nor can they argue for, or against, a non-belief. In fact, you could argue that you cannot even speak from a non-belief other than simply to say, “I do not believe it,” i.e. I’ve never made an argument for or against the existence of a spaghetti monster. If you’re talking about spaghetti monsters, the first thing you must do is define it, which no one has ever done for me, so I would have to say that when it comes to spaghetti monsters, I’m agnostic. However, I know of only a handful of atheists who refuse to speak about the subject of God and offer arguments against his existence. They must believe something about the God they are arguing against. Of course, the truth is they build a straw man God in their imaginations and then argue against it.
If you are arguing for or against something, you are not arguing from a non-belief because that is impossible. Moreover, when arguing against something, the argument “I don’t believe” is insufficient because that is an opinion, not an argument. If you argue, you must argue from some other position or ideology not a non-belief. You cannot as atheists do, argue against God and then claim atheism as a non-belief that you have no burden of proof to justify. Atheists must argue against God from either materialism or naturalist ideology, which are beliefs. In other words, the minute they open their mouths the burden of proof lies on the one trying to prove their unbelief by means of other beliefs. In essence, they have to borrow a belief structure from other ideologies in order to speak against a belief in God. If they don’t want any burden of proof, they should simply not speak and quit arguing from materialism, scientism and naturalism. Once they argue from these other “isms” or ideologies, they then have the burden of proof to demonstrate its truthfulness. 
[i] what is a non-belief? If I hold a belief in my mind that is not true is that a non-belief or is it a false belief? Actually, the only non-belief that a human being can entertain is that God is nothingness. Nothingness is the only non-belief that a human can entertain.
The Atheist Delusion
The greatest delusion embraced by the atheist is not that there’s no God but rather that they are free from delusions. The belief that you are free of all illusions is the most dangerous delusion of all for it opens the floodgates to the acceptance of unreality in a multitude of forms.
It is evident that the atheist has not experienced God, but how in the world can he deny that others have not experienced God. Seeing that experiencing God is a personal matter that cannot be judged empirically by an outsiders. You cannot get into another man’s mind or body to know how or what he is or has experienced. Yet this is the very thing that an atheist must claim.
We know that human beings experience pain to various degrees and that it is impossible for one to experience the other man’s pain exactly and to the same degree. The same thing is true of our experience of God. People experience God in different ways and to different degrees. Therefore, the atheist claim that there is no God is totally unreasonable and contrary to the experiences of billions of people. The only real claim that they can reasonably make is that they have not experienced God personally. Yet, in their arrogance they go one step further and say that no one has experienced God and if they claim that they then are delusional.
As pointed out the most that the atheist can truly claim is that they have not experienced God. However, even that might be saying too much for they could have experienced God and not recognized it as a God experience. This would be a very likely theorem because of their preconceived biases which could keep them from recognizing a God experience if they had one. The most that an atheist can say is that they have not knowingly experienced God. Of course, many atheist will say that if they have not experienced God because he does not exist or that God in some way is obligated to reveal himself in such a way that his existence would be undeniable. They seldom blame themselves for accepting an ideology or worldview that will not allow them to experience the divine. It could be that they’re like a blind man who denies the existence of color because he cannot see it or has not experienced it and then blame color itself for their inability to see it.
In the end, the old saying that a man with an argument will never convince the man with an experience is true. The only people who atheists will move to their unbelief is those who have never experienced God and are already in a sense in the atheist or agnostic camp. Atheist will never be able to argue that God does not exist with a man who has experienced God. That would be like telling a man who was rescued from the sea by a person in a lifeboat, that the person did not exist.
Humans come to know things in many ways. We learn through our mind but we also learn through our other senses. In actuality, our minds process the information that we get through our other senses. However, if some sense has been crippled or damaged we may become dead to that sense and no longer be able to experience the world through it. It could be that some knowledge requires more than one sense and channel. I think this is the case with the knowledge of God. The knowledge of God requires the whole man. If any part of the man has been damaged or disabled it becomes increasingly hard for that man to experience God in any meaningful way.
Therefore talking to a hardened atheist is like talking to a handicap man who doesn’t know that he’s handicapped. I once talked to a young atheist who I knew growing up who had been raised in a very dysfunctional family where there was a great deal of brokenness. His parents claimed to be Christians and for whatever reason they could not work through their dysfunction. This environment caused him to become bitter towards his father and also somewhat towards his mother. This bitterness not only hardened him against having a relationship with his father but it also hardened him against having faith in God. Being an intelligent person he had to come up with a rational explanation for his lack of faith. His self justifying mechanism is the source of his unbelief and not his intellect. In many cases reason is the water boy for the will and imagination, and often hinders people from experiencing God, for people use it to justify themselves.
For those seek an experience with God I would suggest a brutal self-examination of one’s life. This kind of self-examination if done truly will open one’s spirit to God. No haughty or prideful man will ever come in to the presence of God. One must make themselves small and God big before having any kind of meaningful experience with him. In my own personal experience with God I have found it easier to connect with him in a quiet place. My quiet place is the mountains or wilderness. But even if it’s at home in your office or in your bedroom it’s got to be quiet. Noise turns off or weakens our senses. Jesus said, “Blessed are the pure in heart for they will see God”. By pure in heart he meant those that are single-minded. They are like Jacob who wrestled with an angel and refused to give up because he was totally committed to receiving the promise of God. If you seek God hard enough you will find him or should I say He will find you. “Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and the door will be opened to you. For everyone who asks receives; he who seeks finds; and to him who knocks, the door will be opened” (Matt 7:7-8)
Revelation and Myth
The word revelation simply means an unveiling or the lifting of the veil. We often use the word in a religious sense as an unveiling of the Uncreated One or the essence we call God, but the word God is a metaphor that points beyond itself to what is beyond and transcends human intelligence. The word God itself is a revelation because it brings that mystical essence a step closer to our consciousness. The word God to some degree enables us to communicate with each other about this mystical essence and our experiences of it. We men have been analyzing and refining our knowledge of this Totally Other since the dawn of human consciousness. Some have even pretended to be that consciousness when men had a corporal view of God. It was the nation of Israel that first codified that God could not be imaged by the human mind, a revelation which could be traced back to Moses and his encounter with God on the sacred mountain. The Uncreated One is not a creature that man has the right to name just as Adam named the animals brought before him. Be careful about speaking of God.
It’s not hard to figure out how revelation worked. In the past, men experienced the Totally Other in various ways. When they talk to others about their experience there seems to be a thread that connected these experiences, a thread which basically said that there was something beyond the mere physical. Something so lofty that the human mind could not comprehend it. It was this something that primitive man gave the title God.
This helps us to understand the ancient myths. Myths mediated the presence of God to mankind through story and poetry. It was through these forms of mediation that the ground and foundation of All Beings began to reveal himself to mankind. This is why we see a thread, though sometimes thin, of the same themes in myth and story throughout the world.
You could say that the myths were the temples God used as a meeting places with men. They were the bridge that spanned the chasm between the spiritual and the physical. Myths are metaphors that come alive in story form. In the New Testimony, Jesus became the living temple and bridge where man can meet God. Unfortunately, some men are metaphorically disadvantaged because of their concrete thinking, which came about by a scientism that denies anything other than our sense experiences.
What about Jesus and revelation? Well, Jesus is the image or revelation of God. He said, “If you have seen me, you have seen the Father.” The apostle Paul refers to him as “the image of the invisible God.” Paul goes on to say that God packed into Jesus everything that humans could possibly know about God. So in that sense Jesus is THE revelation of God. Jesus became a living metaphor that pointed to God. That’s why John could say the word (revelation) became flesh and dwelled among us (John 1:14). He goes to say, “No one has ever seen God, but God the One and Only, who is at the Father’s side, has made him known.” (John 1:17-18) The Word, The myths, The Forms and The Archetypes all took on a bodily form in Jesus. For in Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form, and you have been given fullness in Christ, who is the head over every power and authority (Col 2:9-10).
 Definition of Myth:1 a: a usually Definition of Myth:1 a: a usually traditional story of ostensibly historical events that serves to unfold part of the world view of a people or explain a practice, belief, or natural phenomenon creation myths b: PARABLE, ALLEGORY Moral responsibility is the motif of Plato’s myths.
 In his book “The Idea of The Holy: An Inquiry into The Non-Rational Factor in The Idea of The Divine and Its’ Relation to The Rational”, Rudolf Otto gives an excellent overview of these mystical experiences and encounters with the Totally Other.
 Hebrews 1:1-3 “In the past God spoke to our forefathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways, but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom he made the universe”.
 “The Varieties of Religious Experience” by William James. Also note the works of Joseph Campbell.
 “For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him, and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross” (Col 1:18-20).